Multi-Disciplinary Engineering of Cyber-Physical Production Systems
Engineering Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is challenging, as these<br> systems have to handle uncertainty and change during operation. A typical approach<br> to deal with uncertainty is enhancing the system with self-adaptation capabilities.<br> However, realizing self-adaptation in CPS, and consequently also in Cyber-Physical<br> Production Systems (CPPS) as a member of the CPS family, is particularly challenging due to the specific characteristics of these systems, including the seamless<br> integration of computational and physical components, the inherent heterogeneity<br> and large-scale of such systems, and their open-endedness.<br> In this chapter we survey CPS studies that apply the promising design strategy<br> of combining different self-adaptation mechanisms across the technology stack of<br> the system. Based on the survey results, we derive recurring adaptation patterns that<br> structure and consolidate design knowledge. The patterns offer problem-solution<br> pairs to engineers for the design of future CPS and CPPS with self-adaptation<br> capabilities. Finally, the chapter outlines the potential of collective intelligence<br> systems for CPPS and their engineering based on the survey results.
Information and Communication Technology